Despite what many people think, rats are actually clean and intelligent animals. They also make for excellent pets as they enjoy human company and they can teach children about the responsibilities of pet ownership.
Many have the perception that these animals are dirty because they think of wild rats, which they may have encountered in cities or woodland areas. However, pet rats are handled and socialised from birth, and as a result they should not be viewed in the same way.
If you’ve just bought your first rat, or you’re in the process of buying one, then we guarantee that you’ll share some great memories in the future.
Take a look at this insightful and info-packed owner guide and learn all about how to look after these fascinating and charming pets.
Rats Love Company
First of all, as rats love company, it’s strongly advised to avoid keeping them on their own.
Instead, your best option is to own a pair or group of the same sex. Rats which are the same gender will avoid unwanted babies being born.
Make sure that you purchase your rat from an established and reputable breeder or pet shop. The best time to buy your new pet is when they are at least six weeks old.
Remember that if you have any questions regarding their wellbeing, gender, or ownership, then the pet shop staff or breeder will be able to assist you.
Don’t forget that if your rat has company then they are more likely to have a healthier and happier life.
The Perfect Rat Home
Providing the best home for your long-tailed friend is important for their natural development and mental stimulation.
If their home isn’t sufficient then this can cause them to become stressed in their new surroundings – making it difficult for both you and the rat to bond.
In light of this, make sure you follow these tips for the perfect rat home:
Choose a wire cage – the larger the better as rats love to climb
- Never use a hamster cage as they are far too small
- Aquarium style cages are also inappropriate as they have poor ventilation
- Make sure the base of your cage is solid as opposed to wire framing – it’s believed that wire flooring can contribute to Bumblefoot (see Infections and Diseases)
- As a minimum size, your cage should be at least 50cm x 80cm (floor space) x 50cm (height)
- Ramps and platforms will allow your rats more space to explore
- Place their new home away from direct sunlight and draughts
When kitting out your new pet rat pad with items and equipment, don’t forget the following:
- Place litter on the floor to absorb droppings
- Dust-extracted bedding will help to avoid respiratory problems
- Steer clear of using cat litter as rat bedding
- Place a suitable nest box in their home so that they can sleep in quiet and comfort
- Their nest box can be filled with shredded paper for bedding
- A rat hammock is also a great edition to your new pet home
- Fill your new friend’s home with equipment and toys such as ladders, ropes, tunnels, blocks of wood and cardboard tubes
- Rotate toys on a regular basis as rats are intelligent animals and need to be stimulated
- You may also wish to obtain a solid surface running wheel (avoid metal variations as their tails can get caught)
- Use ceramic bowls for food and a water bottle or two with a sipper tube as well
(Ref *1 and *2)
If at any stage you need to purchase new or replacement products, then the GJW Titmuss website features a whole host of rat food, toys, cages and treats.
Cleaning Your Cage
Keeping your rat’s cage clean will keep their health in check and also avoid the spread of germs, which can make your pet ill and distressed.
As a responsible owner, you should aim to give your cage a thorough clean once a week. Regular checks during each week also need to be made to remove any nesting or bedding that has become soiled.
When you start your weekly clean, follow these 12 simple steps:
- Before you start cleaning, wash your hands thoroughly
- Remove the rat from the cage and place them in a carry case or box whilst your cleaning operation beings
- Take all of the equipment out of the cage, leaving just the bedding
- If any of the basic toys (cardboard tubes for example) are soiled, then throw them away
- Remove the bedding (leaving a small amount of the original clean bedding so that the rat remembers the smell)
- Use disinfectant to remove tough stains and warm soapy water to give the cage flooring a quick wipe down
- Add a layer of fresh bedding – a mix of wood shavings and shredded paper is ideal and you only need enough bedding to absorb their urine
- Place extra bedding in the area where they sleep
- Once you’ve cleaned any stained toys with warm soapy water, dry them off and place them back in their cage
- Clean and refill food bowls and water bottles and place them back before spreading some food around the cage too
- Put the rat back in and watch them explore their new clean home!
- Finally, wash your hands again
(Ref *3 and *4)
PLEASE NOTE: – avoid pine and cedar shavings for bedding as they can be poisonous to rats. Newspaper shouldn’t be used as floor covering either as the ink can be toxic.
Socialisation – Handling Your Pet
Rats need mental stimulation; this process should involve a regular pattern of owner and pet interaction, or play time, outside of the cage.
As it will take them a while to get used to their new environment, you should leave your rat to adapt for the first few days before you start to handle them.
Be aware that even after this period they may still feel threatened or intimidated and react if you try and grab them straight away.
By taking the correct steps and a calmer and less rushed approach, you will successfully be able to pick up your pet in no time at all.
Here’s a look at our top tips:
- First of all, always make sure they are aware of your movements before you interact with them
- To begin with, slowly stroke the rat on the top of its head with your finger so that they become familiar with contact and your scent
- Remember that treats can be used to entice your rat onto your hand or out of the cage and this tactic should be used in the initial stages of handling
- Once they are comfortable with you in your surroundings, gently place your hand behind their front legs for support and lift them up
- Bring them towards your arms and use your other hand in a cupped position for extra support
- Allow them to explore on your arms, but when you’re holding them, cover their body with your other hand so that they can’t fall
- Never pick up a rat by its tail as it’s easy to cause them damage and distress and if the they’re really scared their tail can even fall off – this is a natural reaction to avoiding extreme threats and danger
(Ref *4 and *5)
After a few attempts at handling your pet, they’ll naturally become socialised and comfortable with you in your environment.
These intelligent animals will also be able to recognise your scent and determine that you aren’t a threat to them too.
Like all rodents, it’s important to register your pet with a local, established and professional vet.
If you fail to do this and your rat becomes ill, it will be difficult to get the help and medical assistance you need.
Registering with a vet will help with a number of areas, including injections and vaccinations and diagnosing diseases and infections too.
Register at the earliest stage possible to avoid added stress if your pet falls ill.
A Rat’s Diet
Rats need a fresh, healthy and balanced diet and this can be achieved through commercial pellets or alternatively from small portions of fruit, vegetables, grains or seeds.
You can introduce other foods into their diet, however if you’re going to do this, make sure it’s done slowly over a week without overdoing it and aiding obesity.
As rats need amino and fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from their diet, you should never give them hamster, rabbit or guinea pig food. This won’t provide them with the nutrients they need for a balanced and stable diet.
Alongside food, it’s imperative that your pet has constant access to clean and fresh drinking water. Without water, there is a serious danger of them becoming ill.
Always make sure that your water bottles aren’t blocked and that they are filled with enough water for them to consume. If you notice that your pet is drinking a lot of water or very little, then they may have an illness or infection, in which case we advise speaking to your vet immediately.
Feeding should occur twice a day – once in the morning and again in the evening.
Always remove any uneaten food in their cage and reduce the portion sizes so that next time round all of their food is consumed.
This will help to keep them at a healthy weight by allowing them to take on board what their body actually needs, as opposed to overfeeding.
Also, remember to stick to a dedicated feeding pattern without skipping meals.
Foods to Avoid
Similar to other rodents, there are a number of foods that you should avoid feeding to your rat in order to prevent them from becoming unwell.
First of all, avoid sugary and high-fat foods, for example dairy, with the exception of offering them small amounts as rewards during training.
Foods of this nature can contribute to obesity issues, so monitor the amount you are feeding your long-tailed friend.
Here’s a look at some of the other foods you should and shouldn’t feed them:
|Foods you can’t feed your rat||Foods you can feed your rat|
|Raw Sweet Potato||Cooked liver (small portions)|
(Ref *7 and *8)
A significant increase or decrease in the amount of food that these animals eat may be linked to a disease or infection. If you do spot that your rat is consuming more food or not eating much at all, seek veterinary advice immediately.
Infections and Diseases
As a responsible owner you should regularly monitor and check for any alterations in your pet’s health.
Spotting any signs and symptoms early means that your pet can be treated in the quickest time possible, without suffering any prolonged physical pain.
Check out the below table for some of the most common viruses, infections and illnesses:
|Mycoplasma Pulmonis (Myco)||Sneezing, lethargy, difficulties breathing, rough hair on their coat, staining which looks like blood around the eyes and nose.|
|Scabs – mites and lice||Scabs normally located around the shoulders, chin and neck.|
|Abscesses||Caused by infection, small to medium sized lumps which can burst and puss.|
|Ear infections||Lack of balance, head tilting.|
|Bumblefoot||Small red bumps which look like calluses, bleeding, scabbing and inflammation of the feet.|
|Tapeworms||Diarrhoea and weight loss can be indicators, although sometimes there aren’t any symptoms.|
|Protozoa||Transmitted by contaminated faeces – symptoms include diarrhoea, rough hair on their coat, weight loss, lethargy, and in extreme conditions heavy bleeding.|
After interacting with your pet, even for a short amount of time, it’s important to wash your hands straight away.
In some cases it’s possible for infections to transfer over to humans and you’ll still want to maintain hygiene regardless.
Once again, it’s important to stress that if you do notice a decline in your pet’s health, then seek advice from your vet at the earliest stage possible.